Portrait of Emperor Napoleon I, workshop of François Pascal Simon Gérard (Baron), c. 1805 - c. 1815
After having seized power through a coup d’état in 1799, General Napoleon proclaimed himself emperor in 1804. In the meanwhile, he conquered large parts of Europe. The year 1812 was a turning point. His invasion of Russia failed and his forces lost the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig. In 1814 Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba. He escaped, but was definitively defeated 100 days later at the Battle of Waterloo.