Portrait of Emperor Napoleon I, workshop of François Pascal Simon Gérard (Baron), c. 1805 - c. 1815
On 2 December 1804 the Corsican-born general Napoleon proclaimed himself Emperor of France. State portraits, such as this painting, were distributed throughout the land. The ermine mantle, staff and throne manifest the power of the Emperor. Napoleon initially reigned in the Netherlands through his brother Louis. In 1810 he took personal control of the country and made the Netherlands part of France.