View of Olinda, Brazil, Frans Jansz Post, 1662
Lured by the sugar plantations, in the 1630s the Dutch captured vast tracts of the Brazilian coastline from the Portuguese. The city of Olinda was the first to fall, seen here with its cathedral in ruins, but still in use. The foreground features indigenous fauna: an armadillo, a sleeping monkey, a sloth, an anteater, and a lizard. The frame – dating from Post’s time – is brimming with Brazilian animals and fruit.